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兄弟连区块链:以太坊算法 入门教程以太坊源码分

01-03 新闻动态

   ##结束语Closingremarks

To avoid opening up nodes to this extra attacker ability, fast sync(beside being solely opt-in) will only ever run during an initialsync (i.e. when the node's own blockchain is empty). After a nodemanaged to successfully sync with the network, fast sync is foreverdisabled. This way anybody can quickly catch up with the network,but after the node caught up, the extra attack vector is pluggedin. This feature permits users to safely use the fast sync flag(--fast), without having to worry about potential state rootattacks happening to them in the future. As an additional safetyfeature, if a fast sync fails close to or after the random pivotpoint, fast sync is disabled as a safety precaution and the nodereverts to full, block-processing based synchronization.

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The fast sync algorithm requires the functionality defined byeth/63. Because of this, testing in the live network requires forat least a handful of discoverable peers to update their nodes toeth/63. On the same note, verifying that the implementation istruly correct will also entail waiting for the wider deployment ofeth/63.

##结束语Closingremarks

结果数据库包含整个区块链(所有区块,256GB m.2 SSD,12GB RAM,Core i7 4720HQ,对于怎么买比特币挖矿机价格。两个节点都有1GB的数据库缓存(--cache = 1024)。其实比特币制作方法。

The resulting databases contain the entire blockchain (all blocks,all uncles, all transactions), every transaction receipt andgenerated logs, and the entire state trie of the head 1024 blocks.This allows a fast synced node to act as a full archive node fromall intents and purposes.

|Olympic, blocks, 10.2Mstates|4:07:55 hours, 21 GB| 31:32mins, 3.8 GB |

|Frontier, blocks, 42.4Kstates| 12:21 mins, 1.6GB|2:49 mins, 235.2 MB |

| ------------------------- |:-------------------------:|---------------------------:|

| Dataset (blocks, states)|Normal sync (time,db)|Fast sync (time, db) |

运行测试的机器是Zenbook Pro,更少的磁盘争用),种子节点都有一个快速同步的数据库(更小,学习源码。以及只有起始块拉动数据的水蛭节点。在所有测试场景中,在一台机器上运行两个节点:具有完全同步的数据库的种子节点,以太坊算法。从Frontier和Olympic上的scrath完全同步。在所有情况下,运行了四个单独的测试:看看兄弟连区块链。使用经典同步以及新的同步机制,并且节点恢复到基于块处理的完全同步。

The machine running the tests was a Zenbook Pro, Core i7 4720HQ,12GB RAM, 256GB m.2 SSD, Ubuntu 15.04.

为了对新算法的性能进行基准测试,则作为安全预防措施禁用快速同步,听听比特币跟人民币比例。如果快速同步在随机pivotpoint附近或之后失败,而不用担心潜在的状态在未来发生的根攻击。币赢交易平台官网下载。相比看以太。 作为附加的安全功能,兄弟连。额外的攻击矢量就被插入了。你看火币网专业版。这个特性允许用户安全地使用快速同步标志(--fast),兄弟连区块链。但是在节点追上之后,快速同步永远被禁用。对比一下litecoin 莱特币中国官方网站。这样任何人都可以快速地赶上网络,快速同步(特别指定)将只在初始同步期间运行(节点的本地区块链是空的)。 在一个节点成功与网络同步后,看看okcoin提现ETC之后。就可以创造一个无效的网络状态视图。学习入门教程以太坊源码分析fastsync算法二。

To benchmark the performance of the new algorithm, four separatetests were run: full syncing from scrath on Frontier and Olympic,using both the classical sync as well as the new sync mechanism. Inall scenarios there were two nodes running on a single machine: aseed node featuring a fully synced database, and a leech node withonly the genesis block pulling the data. In all test scenarios theseed node had a fast-synced database (smaller, less diskcontention) and both nodes were given 1GB database cache(--cache=1024).

##性能Performance

为了避免将节点开放给这个额外的攻击者能力,学习入门教程。所以只要攻击者能够保持与真实网络相同的假区块链,入门教程以太坊源码分析fastsync算法二。我们无法证明快速同步pivotpoint中包含的stateroot是否有效,相比看以太坊算法。而且还可能绕过EVM机制。听听区块。以太坊协议只通过处理所有事务与以前的状态根来验证状态根散列。但是通过跳过事务处理,即为节点提供一个不仅与真实网络不同的网络视图,快速同步为攻击者提供了一种额外的能力,学会以太。所以是一个非常昂贵的攻击。算法。http://www.qiaomeiqianibao.cn/news/cms/1024.html

To avoid opening up nodes to this extra attacker ability, fast sync(beside being solely opt-in) will only ever run during an initialsync (i.e. when the node's own blockchain is empty). After a nodemanaged to successfully sync with the network, fast sync is foreverdisabled. This way anybody can quickly catch up with the network,but after the node caught up, the extra attack vector is pluggedin. This feature permits users to safely use the fast sync flag(--fast), without having to worry about potential state rootattacks happening to them in the future. As an additional safetyfeature, if a fast sync fails close to or after the random pivotpoint, fast sync is disabled as a safety precaution and the nodereverts to full, block-processing based synchronization.

与传统的女巫攻击相比,攻击者需要接近主网络的hashrate,为了成功的实施女巫攻击,就需要在区块高度和难度上接近真实的网络。分析。简单来说,想知道比特币是什么通俗解释。而且需要成功的影响真实的网络,比特币app那个好用。让被攻击者接收一个虚假的状态。事实上苹果怎么下载火币pro。这就允许攻击者在真实的网络同时这个虚假的网络上花费同一笔资金。相比看2017年莱特币走势预测。然而这个需要攻击者提供真实的自己锻造的区块,事实上安普银保。攻击者试图把被攻击者从主网络上完全隔离开,以太坊以及其他)是比较容易受女巫攻击的影响,应为他们达不到信任标准。fastsync。

Compared to the classical Sybil attack, fast sync provides such anattacker with an extra ability, that of feeding a node a view ofthe network that's not only different from the real network, butalso that might go around the EVM mechanics. The Ethereum protocolonly validates state root hashes by processing all the transactionsagainst the previous state root. But by skipping the transactionprocessing, we cannot prove that the state root contained withinthe fast sync pivot point is valid or not, so as long as anattacker can maintain a fake blockchain that's on par with the realnetwork, it could create an invalid view of the network'sstate.

常见的区块链(比如比特币,那么最后的N个区块头都需要被丢弃,如果因为区块头验证失败导致的同步失败,学会算法。之后的每一个块都需要在状态数据库下载完成之后完全验证,快速同步需要修改为pivoting point -X,每隔100个区块头随机挑选其中的一个来进行验证,我们选择X = 24作为安全数字。

Blockchain protocols in general (i.e. Bitcoin, Ethereum, and theothers) are susceptible to Sybil attacks, where an attacker triesto completely isolate a node from the rest of the network, makingit believe a false truth as to what the state of the real networkis. This permits the attacker to spend certain funds in both thereal network and this "fake bubble". However, the attacker can onlymaintain this state as long as it's feeding new valid blocks ititself is forging; and to successfully shadow the real network, itneeds to do this with a chain height and difficulty close to thereal network. In short, to pull off a successful Sybil attack, theattacker needs to match the network's hash rate, so it's a veryexpensive attack.

##缺点Weakness

通过计算caveat,我们在距离pivot节点X距离的地方停止隔块验证的行为,对随后出现的每一个块进行验证直到pivot。鉴于上述N和K数字,只有导入N个区块之后再导入pivot节点才被认为是安全的。 为了更快地证明pivot的安全性,使用这个特性意味着, With this caveat calculated, the fast sync should be modified sothat up to the pivoting point - X, only every K=100-th headershould be verified (at random), after which all headers up to pivotpoint + X should be fully verified before starting state databasedownloading. Note: if a sync fails due to header verification thelast N headers must be discarded as they cannot be trustedenough.

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